Myanmar Health Sciences Research Journal
Volume 30, Number 1
TITLE: Molecular Detection of Human Rhinoviruses in Children with Influenza-like Illness Attending Yangon Children’s Hospital, 2016
AUTHOR: Htin Lin1*, Hlaing Myat Thu1, Theingi Win Myat1, Win Mar1, Khaing Moe Aung1, Khin Khin Oo1, Khin Sandar Aye1, Thida Kyaw1 & Ye Myint Kyaw2
SOURCE: Myanmar Health Sciences Research Journal, Vol. 30, No. 1, 2018
ABSTRACT: Influenza-like illness (ILI) is caused not only by influenza virus but other viruses including human rhinovirus (HRV). HRV usually causes common cold and exaggerates asthmatic attack and otitis media in children. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical severity of HRV among children with influenza-like illness. It was a cross-sectional study conducted at Out-Patient and Emergency Department of Yangon Children’s Hospital (YCH). Nasopharyngeal swab samples were obtained from a total of 153 children with ILI from January to December, 2016. Viral RNA was extracted by QIAamp® RNA Mini kits. Non-coding region of HRV gene was detected by conventional RT-PCR using Qiagen One Step RT-PCR kit. Of 153 cases, HRV was detected in 42 cases (27.5%). Males were slightly more affected than females with the ratio of male to female, 1.2:1. The maximum number of HRV cases was found in the children aged less than 5 years that accounted for 71.4%. During the study period, HRV positive cases were detected in rainy season and winter season peaking in June, November and December. Fever, cough and rhinorrhoea were observed as the main symptoms of HRV infections that were responsible for 100%, 100% and 81% of HRV cases, respectively. Gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhoea and vomiting were observed in 7.1% and 2.4%, respectively, of HRV-positive cases and fast breathing was observed in 2 HRV cases (4.8%). There was no HRV-positive case that presented with tightness of chest. Most of the HRV-affected children presented with low grade fever (mean=100.7ºC, SD±0.85). Clinical diagnosis of HRV cases included acute viral infection (AVI), acute respiratory infection (ARI), pneumonia and dengue haemorrhagic fever grade 1 (DHF I) accounting for 83.3%, 7.1%, 4.8% and 4.8%, respectively. This study provided baseline information about ILI cases due to human rhinovirus that would be useful for the assessment of HRV outbreak and management of children with influenza-like illness.
SUBJECT HEADINGS: Human rhinovirus, Influenza-like illness, Children, Outbreak