Myanmar Health Sciences Research Journal
Volume 25, Number 3
TITLE: Aetiological Agents, Modifiable Risk Factors and Gamma Interferon Status of Children with Acute Respiratory Infections Attending General Practitioner's Clinics
AUTHOR: Wah Wah Aung; Khin Thet Wai; Hlaing Myat Thu; Khin Saw Aye; Mya Mya Aye; Htin Lin; Moe Thida; Than Mya; Khine Zar Win
SOURCE: Myanmar Health Sciences Research Journal. 2013; 25(3): 189-195
ABSTRACT: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) represent one of the major health problems in children in developing countries. This study identified bacterial agents by throat swab culture and viral agents by using Madin Darby Canine Kidney cells and indirect immunofluorescent assay from 118 children (1-12 years old) with ARI (cases) attending general practitioner's (GP) clinics in Shwepyithar Township, Yangon, during 2011-12. Immunological status was determined by measuring gamma interferon (ÃŽÂ³INF) level by capture ELISA (BD, Japan). Modifiable risk factors were ascertained by interviewing mother/care-takers of 118 cases and their 240 age-matched controls. Bacterial pathogens were isolated in 27.9% (33/118), comprising Staphylococcus aureus (7.6%, 9/118), Pseudomonas spp (5.9%, 7/118), Streptococcus pneumoniae (5.1%, 6/118), Haemophilus influenzae type b (4.2%, 5/118), Escherichia coli (3.4%, 4/118) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.7%, 2/118). Viral pathogens were detected in 14.4% (17/118), comprising Influenza A (4.2%, 5/118), Influenza B (2.5%, 3/118), Parainfluenza type 1 (3.4%, 4/118), Parainfluenza type 2 (1.7%, 2/118) and Parainfluenza type 3 (2.5%, 3/118). The range of ÃŽÂ³INF of cases with bacterial infections was 235-11250 pg/ml and that of cases with viral infections was 235-940 pg/ml. Mean ÃŽÂ³INF level among normal controls was <300 pg/ml. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of pathogenic bacteria was also determined. Modi-fiable risk factors included inadequate ventilation, cooking indoors, smoke producing cooking fuel, and passive smoking indoors. Integrated assessment of common etiological agents and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of ARI, immunological status and modifiable risk factors from clinic-based data support the active surveillance of ARI by Disease Control Programme.
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